DOWNLOAD JKSSB BIOLOGY STUDY MATERIAL BOOKLET by Kashmir Student

BIOLOGY

Contents:-
  • Classification of Organisms
  • Study of Cell
  • Genetics 
  • Sex Determination in Human 
  • Organic Evolution 
BOTANY 
  • Plants 
  • Phanerogams or Floral Plant 
  • Plant Morphology 
  • Plant Tissue 
  • Photosynthesis 
  • Plant Hormones 
  • Plant Diseases 
  • Nitrogen cycle 
  • Population and Biotic Community 
ZOOLOGY 
  • Classification of Animal Kingdom 
  • Some Main Groups of Phylum Chordata 
  • Human Blood 
  • System of the Human Body 
  • Circulatory System 
  • Excretory System 
  • Excretory Products 
  • Central Nervous System 
  • Peripheral Nervous System 
  • Skeletal System 
  • Muscular System 
  • Reproductive System 
  • Gonads 
  • Respiratory System 
  • Sense Organs 
  • Nutrients 
  • Diseases 
  • Biotechnology

•The term ‘Biology’ was coined by Lamarck and Treviranus.
Aristotle is known as the Father of Biology. He is also known as the Father of Zoology.
Theophrastus is known as Father of Botany.
1. Botany
Study of different aspects of plants.
2. Zoology
Study of various aspects of animals. Aristotle is called Father of Zoology as well as Biology.

Biologists and their Contributions
1. Coined the term ‘cell’ | Robert Hooke
2. Binomial nomenclature | Carolus Linnaeus
3. One gene-one enzyme hypothesis | Beadle & Tatum
4. Operon concept | Jacob & Monod
5. Jumping genes concept | Dr. McClintock
6. Human blood groups | Karl Landsteiner
7. Fluid Mosaic Model | Singer & Nicholson

Classification of Organisms
Classification means to categorise organisms into different groups.
1. Monera
This kingdom includes all prokaryotic organisms like bacteria, cynobacteria and archiobacteria. It includes true-bacteria (Eubacteriales), fungus like bacteria (Actinomycetales) and the blue-green algae (cyanobacteriae).
2. Protista
This kingdom includes unicellular form usually found in parasitic and saprophytic forms. It includes Euglenophyta, Pyrrophyta; Chrysophyta and Xarthophytes. 
Euglena has both heterotrophic and autotrophic modes of nutrition. 
3. Fungi
This kingdom includes non-green plants, generally multi-nucleate organisms with  eukaryotic nuclei. It has saprophytic  nutrition and growing on dead and decaying organic matter. 
Example: Mushroom, Mucor, Albugo, etc.
4. Plantae
This kingdom includes all plants except some algae, diatoms, fungi and ember of  monera and protista. 
5. Animalia
Multicellular eukaryotic organisms with cells lacking a rigid cell wall and photosynthetic apparatus. Almost all animals come under this kingdom except protozoan. 

Study of Cell
Cell: The Cell is the basic structural and functional unit of all known living organisms.  
It is the smallest unit of life and is often called the building block of life. 
• The largest known cells are unfertilized ostrich egg cells. 
• The smallest cell is of PPLO(Mycoplasma gallisepticum). 
• Human nerve cell is the longest animal cell.
• Largest unicellular plant is Acetabularia (10 cm) and animal is Amoeba, (1mm). 
• The largest human cell is the female ovum and the smallest human cell is the  red blood cell. 
• Robert Hooke coined the term cell.
• The first living cell was discovered by Leeuwenhoek. 
• The longest cell is Neuron.
• The biggest cell is egg of Ostrich.

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