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GENERAL SCIENCE for COMPETITIVE EXAMS BOOK

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GENERAL SCIENCE for Competitive Exams

CONTENTS
 PHYSICS
1. Mechanics
2. Properties of Matter
3. Heat
4. Sound
5. Optics
6. Electricity
7. Magnetism
8. Semi Conductor Electronics
CHEMISTRY
1. Nature of Matter
2. Structure of Atom
3. Classification of Elements & Periodicity In Properties
4. Acids, Bases & Salts
5. Metals & Non Metals
6. Environmental Pollution
7. General Concepts of Chemistry
8. Some Important Man-Made Materials
9. General Organic Chemistry
BIOLOGY
1. Diversity in Living Organisms
2. Cells & Tissues
3. Plant Physiology
4. Human Physiology
5. Genetics & Evolution
6. Biology in Human Welfare
7. Diseases & their Defence Mechanism
8. Ecology & Environmental Awareness
CHEMISTRY
NATURE OF MATTER
1. Substance (or chemical substance) : A “substance” is a kind of matter that can not be separated into other kinds of matter by any physical process. e.g. gold, silver, iron, sodium chloride, calcium carbonate etc. 
2. Pure substance: is one that is a single substance and has a uniform composition. Such a substance always have the same texture and taste. e.g. water, salt, sugar etc. 
3. Testing the purity of a substance : The purity of substance can easily be checked by checking its melting points in case of a solid substance or by checking its boiling points in case of a liquid substance. 
4. Types of pure substances : Two different types of pure substances are 
(i) Element: An element is a substance which can not be split up into two or more simpler substances by usual chemical methods of applying heat, light or electric energy. e. g. hydrogen, oxygen, sodium, chlorine etc. 
(ii) Compound: A compound is a substance made up of two or more elements chemically combined in a fixed ratio by weight e.g. H2O (water), NaCl (sodium chloride) etc. 
5. Mixture : A mixture is a substance which consists of two or more elements or compounds not chemically combined together. e.g. Air is a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, inert gases, water vapour, carbon dioxide etc. 
6. Types of mixtures : Mixtures are impure substances. They are of two types: 
(i) Homogeneous mixture: It has a uniform composition throughout and its components can not be distinguished visually. e.g. a well mixed sample of vinegar. 
(ii) Heterogeneous mixture: It is one that is not uniform throughout. Different samples of a heterogeneous mixture may have different composition. e.g. a mixture of salt and pepper. 
7. Solution : It is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances whose composition can be varied. e.g. solution of common salt in water, solution of ammonia in water. Some other examples are lemonade, coke, pepsi etc. 
8. Separating the components of a mixture: Various methods are used for separating the constituents of a mixture. Depending upon the type of mixture (i.e. whether it is a homogeneous mixture or heterogeneous mixture) different methods used are given below : 
Mixture Separation Method
1. Insoluble solid in solvent Sedimentation followed by filtration. In case of a fine solid centrifugation is used instead of filtration. 
2. Solution of solid in liquid Evaporation, crystallization, distillation .
3. Miscible mixture of liquids- Fractional distillation
4. Immiscible mixture of liquids- Separating funnel
5. Mixture of two solids one of which is sublime Sublimation
6. Mixture of substances in solution- Chromatography
9. Solute : The component of solution that is dissolved and present in smaller quantities in a solution is known as  solute. e.g. common salt in case of solution of common salt in water and ammonia in case of solution of ammonia  in water. 
10. Solvent : The component of solution in which solute is dissolved is known as solvent. It is always present in larger amount in a solution. e.g. water in case of the solution of common salt or ammonia in water. 
11. Saturated Solution : A solution in which no more solute can be dissolved at the same temperature is called Saturated solution. 
12. Unsaturated Solution : It is a solution in which more solute can be dissolved at the same temperature. 
13. Super-saturated Solution : It is a solution which contains more mass of the dissolved solute than the saturated solution at the same temperature and pressure. 
14. Alloys : Alloys are homogeneous mixtures of metal and can not separated into their components by physical methods. e.g. Brass is a mixture of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn).... 

BIOLOGY
DIVERSITY IN LIVING ORGANISMS
Terms
Biodiversity: Biodiversity refers number and types of wide variety of plants and animals present on earth.
  1.  In 1773, Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus formulated the system of Binomial Nomenclature in his book ‘Species plantarum’. In binomial system, each name is expressed in two parts i.e., generic name and specific name.
  2. Taxonomy is the branch of biology that deals with the framing of laws and principles for classifying the organisms on the basis of their characteristics and evolutionary relationships.
  3. The hierarchial system of classification was introduced by Linnaeus.
Kingdom - Phylum or Division - Class -Order - Family - Genus - Species


History of Classification
  • Biological classification was first proposed by Aristotle who used simple morphological characters to classify plants and animals.
  • Linnaeus initially separated plants and animals in two Kingdomsi.e., Kingdom Plantae and Kingdom Animalia.
  • Most accepted System of classification is Five system classification which was given by Whittaker.... 

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