JKBOSE, CBSE | Class 10th DISASTER MANAGEMENT NCERT Solutions Study Material

JKBOSE, CBSE | Class 10th DISASTER MANAGEMENT NCERT Solutions Study Material 


Chapters:-
2. SURVIVAL SKILLS
3. ALTERNATIVE COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
4. SAFE CONSTRUCTION PRACTICES
5. SHARING RESPONSIBILITIES

NCERT SOLUTIONS

CHAPTER 2: SURVIVAL SKILLS

Question-1
What Solution do you give for dehydration?

Solution:
An Oral dehydration Solution prepared by dissolving a pinch of salt and a tea-spoon of sugar in a glass
of water has to be given to a person who has been dehydrated.

Question-2
What are the 3 major factors to be planned for a rescue operation to be successful?

Solution:
Rescue Operations have to be planned well to be effective.
The 3 major factors to be planned during a rescue operation are:-
1.Man-power
2.Rescue equipment
3.Method of rescue.


Question-3
Solution:
Infra –red cameras; acoustic equipment and Bio- radars are 3 advanced equipments used to find out
trapped victims.

Question-4
What are the first-aid measures to be taken when a people is inflicted with burn injuries?

Solution:
A burn is an injury caused to the skin when it comes in contact with fire; steam; hot liquid; hot metal; electricity or harmful chemicals. While administering first aid for a burn injury the first thing a person should do is to immerse the burnt area in cool water. Remove restricting clothing before a blister forms. One should then cover the burnt area with a dry sterile cloth. In case the victim himself is on fire, then the victim should be rolled down and covered with a blanket. The person administering first-aid for a burn injury has to be careful not to apply any pressure on the area. Attempt should not be made to remove any material stuck on the burnt area. Oil or any other ointment should not be applied on the area. 

Question-5
What should be done in case of bleeding?

Solution:
Cuts, scraps and punctures can result in bleeding. Pressure should be applied on the bleeding spot to stop the bleeding. The patient should be made to  raise the injured part above the level of the heart so that bleeding reduces. The wound should be  bandaged once heavy bleeding stops so that the exposed are is not infected and further bleeding is restricted. 

Question-6
What should be done in the event of a dog bite and frost bite?

Solution:
Dog Bite
The first thing that has to be done when a person is bitten by a dog is to wipe the dog’s saliva and clean the wound thoroughly. The person giving first aid should be careful a not to come in contact  with the saliva. The area that was bitten has to be covered with a dry sterile cloth after it has been  washed. The patient has to be taken to the hospital immediately for further treatment. 

FrostBite
Frost bites occur when the body tissues freeze after exposure to very low temperature .
First the frostbitten areas should be covered with warm hands. The affected areas can be immersed in warm water. Then the area should be covered with warm material. One should be careful not to rub the affected area with ice crystals. The patient should not be allowed  to walk and one should ensure that any ensuing blisters should not be broken. 

Question-7
What are the duties of the Rescuer and the principles a rescuer should follow while assessing the area
of disaster.

Solution:
The first duty of a rescuer is to assess the area of disaster. This would save time and make the operation more effective. The rescuer should know the extent of the damage, how to approach the area where the disaster has taken place and all other details pertaining to the disaster. He should also be aware if there is a possibility of further disaster in that particular area. The rescuer should gather  all the necessary information from the local people. 
Principles: A rescuer should follow while assessing the area of disaster is to visit the place and get first hand information of the place before beginning the rescue operation. He should listen to all the  
information that is available from all sources. The Rescuer should personally feel convinced that he can carry out the operation in spite of the dangers involved in the rescue operation. 

Question-8
What are the first-aid measures to be taken when a people is inflicted with burn injuries?

Solution:
A burn is an injury caused to the skin when it comes in contact with fire; steam; hot liquid; hot metal; electricity or harmful chemicals. While administering first aid for a burn injury the first thing a person should do is to immerse the burnt area in cool water. Remove restricting clothing before a blister forms. One should then cover the burnt area with a dry sterile cloth. In case the victim himself is on fire, then the victim should be rolled down and covered with a blanket. The person administering first-aid for a burn injury has to be careful not to apply any pressure on the area. Attempt should not be made to remove any material stuck on the burnt area. Oil or any other ointment should not be applied on the area. 




CHAPTER 3: ALTERNATIVE COMMUNICATION SYSTEM
NCERT SOLUTIONS

Question-1
Why should the alternative communication systems be installed?

Solution:
Normal telecommunication networks usually get disrupted or jammed during a disaster. Earthquakes, cyclones, floods and landslides severely damage the infrastructure of the network.
Cables or the transmitting towers are damaged or the power supply is disrupted during a disaster. When this happens the telephone fails to function. Even the wireless telephones get disrupted as they 
also depend on the transmitting towers. During a disaster, as many people want to use the telephone line to that particular area, the cables get jammed and the communication system fails to work. As 
there is a possibility of the existing communication system to fail during a disaster, it is very important to have an alternate system of communication that can be used during disasters, as we 
know communication is very important during a disaster.

Question-2
Name two prime communication networks of the government of India and explain their functions.

Solution:
There are 2 major networks run by the government of India. 
They are
NIC –National Informatics centre
BSNL – Barath Sanchar Nigam limited

NIC –National Informatics centre
NIC is a premier Science and Technology organization of the Government of India. It functions through a nation wide information and communication technology network called NICNET. The 
Secretariats of all the States and Union Territories and all the District Collectorates are connected through this network. 

Barath Sanchar Nigam limited
The BSNL is a leading telecommunication company and the largest public sector undertaking of India. It has a network of 45 million telephone lines covering 5000 towns. BSNL provides telecom services.

Question-3
How is Amateur radio (HAM) different from the common radio communication?

Solution:
Amateur radio is also known as ‘Ham radio’. The Ham radio works on the same principle as the ordinary radio, the only difference being the user of this mode of transmission has to follow certain 
frequencies as defined by the International Telecommunication Union. In India the ‘Ham radio is controlled by the Wireless Planning and Coordination Wing of the Ministry of Telecommunication.

Rules to be followed by Ham radio operator
The frequencies can be used only for research, education and personal use.
The frequencies cannot be used for commercial purposes. 
HAM radio does not use ground based infrastructure. As it requires limited power supply it runs on batteries. Hence during disasters the HAM radio is used.

Question-4
What makes the Satellite based communication system more reliable in case of large scale 
natural/manmade emergencies?

Solution:
Satellite based communication system is reliable during disasters . Communication satellites are in orbit in space and are not vulnerable to natural disasters on earth. Global communication links can be 
established with very small satellite antennas.



CHAPTER 4: SAFE CONSTRUCTION PRACTICES

NCERT SOLUTIONS 

Question-1
What should be the configuration of an earth quake resistant building?

Solution:
Building should have a rectangular plan to make them earth quake resistant. There should be reinforced concrete columns to support long walls. Large buildings should be fragmented into small  rectangular blocks. 

Question-2
How should the foundation be constructed in soft and firm soil?

Solution:
Tilting, cracking and failure of structure can result from soil liquefaction. So the foundation of the building should be strong. Building constructors should ensure that there is no movement of  
underground soil once the building is built.
If the soil is soft the foundation has to be deeper, if the soil is firm the foundation can be moderate.

Question-3
Which are the most vulnerable homes during floods?

Solution:
Buildings constructed with mud and bricks get damaged easily during floods. Thatched huts and small houses with tinned roofs also get damaged during floods. People who occupy the flood plains of  rivers are most affected by floods. 

Question-4
What are the general protection measures for buildings against flood damage?

Solution:
Damage to houses during flood has to be minimised. The first and foremost thing to be done is prevent inundation of flood waters. People should avoid building houses on river banks or near the sea coast. Houses should be built at  
least 250 meters away from the river banks. The government should ensure proper drainage system. Buildings should be built on an elevated platform. Buildings in flood prone areas can be built on stilts  
or columns.

Question-5
What are the considerations for selecting the site in areas prone to landslides?

Solution:
The site most suited to build houses in landslide prone areas are where the land has not moved in the past. Flat surfaces away from sudden slopes and areas at the top or along the ridges are also suited for  
building houses.

Question-6
Write about the slope stabilisation methods by drainage.

Solution:
Surface drainage system should be kept away from steep slopes, loose soil and non-vegetated land. Water that drains from the roof and other areas like the portico should not be allowed to flow down  
the slopes. This water should be drained through the drain pipes.

Question-7
What are the desirable plan forms and orientations for cyclone resistant buildings?

Solution:
The shape of an individual building should be either circular or polygonal in cyclone prone areas.
Rectangular or square shapes are not suited. A symmetrical building with a compact plan is most
suited to withstand cyclones.




CHAPTER 5: SHARING RESPONSIBILITIES

NCERT SOLUTIONS
 
Question-1
If you were the Relief Commissioner of the State of Assam which is affected by floods every year, list out five departments that you need to contact.

Solution:
The five departments that the Relief Commissioner of the State of Assam has to contact are
1.Health Department
2.Irrigation Department
3.Department of Water and sanitation
4.Police Department
5.Fire services

Question-2
List out four members of the Disaster Management Committee at the District level.

Solution:
Officers from the Health; Irrigation; Veterinary; Police; Fire Services and the Water and Sanitation department are members of the District Disaster Management Committee.

Question-3
Write the main aim of the National Cadet Corp.

Solution:
The National Cadet Corps aims at creating human resource of organised, trained and activated youth.Members of the NCC are always ready to serve the Nation during any emergency.

Question-4
List the organisations which help the state government functionaries in responding to disasters. 

Solution:
The organisations which help the state government functionaries in responding to disasters are 
The United Nations Disaster Management Team 
India:
Indian Armed Forces 
National Cadet Corps 
Civil Defence National Service Scheme 
Nehru Yuva Kendras Home Guards

Question-5
Explain the role of Central Government in responding to disasters.

Solution:
Role of the Central government during a disaster depends on the gravity of the disaster. Depending on the gravity of the situation the Centre decides the scale of relief operations. The Centre provides
financial support and other logistical support to the state government that faces any disaster.All natural disasters are coordinated by the Ministry of Home affairs. Drought alone is taken care of
by the Ministry of Agriculture.When we talk of man-made disasters like accidents different Central government Ministries handle them.
Air accidents- Ministry of Civil Aviation
Railway accidents- Ministry of Railways
Chemical, 
Biological Nuclear disasters – Ministry of Home Affairs
Epidemics- Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. 
This distribution of responsibility is done to make the disaster management more effective and fast. The Prime Minister; the Ministers of the Union Cabinet and the National Crisis Management Committee are collectively responsible for the decisions taken for disaster management.


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