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Saturday, January 1, 2011

M.Sc Electronics

Postgraduate Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology
University of Kashmir, Srinagar-190 006

Syllabus for M.Sc. Entrance Test in Electronics Session 2013

UNIT I: Electronic Devices and circuits.
Review of semiconductors, Thermally generated carriers, Qualitative treatment of PN junction, Barrier height, Depletion region and junction capacitance, Forwarded and reverse characteristics, Cut- in voltage, Reverse breakdown voltage, Diode as rectifier (Half wave and Full wave with analysis), Zener diode and its applications as voltage regulator, Tunnel diode and its applications as voltage regulator, Tunnel diode, Clippers, Clampers and Limiters, LCDs as display devices.

UNIT II: BJT and Field Effect Transistors.
PNP and NPN transistors, Transistor action, Characteristics, α and β of a transistor and their determination from characteristics. Need of biasing, Biasing techniques, Self bias, Collector feedback bias and emitter bias, D.C load line and operating point, Saturation and cutoff, Emitter Follower. Design Problems pertaining to CB, CE and CC
JFET, MOSFET (Depletion and enhancement type), Construction details, V-I Characteristics, CMOS and CCD, MOS capacitor Band diagram, JFET and MOSFET as amplifiers, Introduction to IC technology.

UNIT III: Network Theorems and Passive Filters.
Kirchhoff’s Laws, Applications to π and T type circuits, Current and voltage division theorems, Thevenin’s theorem, Norton’s theorem, Source Transformation, Superposition theorem, Reciprocity to passive circuits, Representing R,X, and Z in rectangular and polar (Phasor) form, Analysis of LC, RC, and LCR circuits with ac source in time.
domain, Series and parallel resonance circuits and bandwidth, dB units. Design problems involving the order of Filter and Pole, Types and properties of passive filters (ideal and practical), RC, RL, RLC low pass, High pass, Bandpass and Bandstop filters, Sharpness of response of filters, Filters as phase shifting networks, Design problems.

Unit IV: Amplifiers and Oscillators.
Classification of Amplifiers: RC coupled Amplifiers, Analysis at low, mid, high frequencies. Direct coupled amplifiers, Difference amplifiers, Power amplifiers, Class A, Classes B push pull, Efficiency and crossover distortion in each, Design of single and multi-stage RC coupled Amplifiers.
Feedback: Positive and negative feedback, Effect of negative feedback on amplifiers gain, Distortion, Bandwidth, input and output Impedance, Barkhausen’s criteria for sustained oscillations, Wein Bridge oscillator, RC phase shift oscillators, Hartley and Colpitts oscillators, Piezo- Electric effect and Crystal oscillators. (Transistorized), Expression for oscillators condition and Frequency of oscillations.

Unit V: Operational Amplifier and Multivibrators
Operational Amplifier (OA): Ideal and Practical characteristics of OA, Application of OA’s Inverting amplifier phase shifter, Adder, Voltage follower, Scale change, Voltage-to-current and current-to-Voltage converters, Integrators, Differentiators and difference amplifiers (Analysis in each Circuit).
Multivibrators: Astable, Monostable and Bistable multivibrators (transistorized). Timer 555 application to Monostable and stable mltivivratiors,

Unit VI: Power Electronics and Opto-Electronics
SCR, DIAC, TRIAC and UJT construction and operations, voltage sources, Current sources, Regulated DC power supply, Series and shunt regulator, Introduction to power amplifiers, transformers, Average power and rms current. Active power, Reactive Power and power factor,
Luminescence, Material system for LED, operation of LED, light current characteristics, spectral purity of LED’s Optical Absorption in semiconductors, Photo- Conductive Detector, Photo diode and phototransistor.

Unit VII: Introduction to discrete Mathematics and Set Theory.
Set Notation, Designation of sets, Operation on sets, Venn diagram, Theorems based on set Operations, Family of Sets, Generalized De-Morgan’s Laws and Generalized Distributive Laws, Power Set, Partition of a Set. Definition of relations, Types of Relations, Equivalence Class, Ordering Relations. Posets, Lattices, Boolean algebra, Finite Boolean Algebra as Tuples or 0’s and Boolean Expressions, Applications of Boolean Algebra. Decimal, Octal, Hexadecimal, Binary and Ternary number systems, Inter conversion of number systems, Addition, Subtraction Multiplication and Division of Binary numbers,
Propositions and Logic operations, Truth Tables and Propositions Generated by Set, Equivalence and Implication, Laws of Logic, Mathematical Induction Quantifiers.

Unit VIII: Combinational Logic Design.
Positive and Negative logic, Resistor transistor Logic(RTL), Transistor- Transistor Logic (TTL), Emitter Coupled Logic (ECL), Diode- Transistor Logic (DTL), HTL, CMOS.
Basic logic gates and NAND, NOR, XNOR gates Representation of Boolean Expressions in SOP and POS form, Conversion of SOP to POS and vice versa), Minimization of Boolean Expression (Karnaugh map method and Quine-Mcclusky method, Don’t care conditions), Binary Codes (Excess 3, BCD, GRAY code, ASCII code, Various other weighted and Un-weighted Codes), Design of Arithmetic and Logic Circuits (Adders, Sub tractors, code converters, Parity checker/Generator, multiplexer and encoders Decoder/ De-multiplexers).

Unit IX: Sequential Logic Design.
Basic Memory Cell, Flip Flop Design (SR, JK, D, T), Clocked Flip Flops, Flip Flop Triggering (edge and Level Triggering), Master Slave flip flop, Design and applications
of Registers, Counters (Synchronous and Asynchronous), Clocked sequential circuit Design, Memory organization and operation, classifications of memory.

Unit X: Introduction to Microprocessors.
Evolution of Microprocessors, Microprocessor Architecture, Microcomputer, Three- state bus, System bus, Single-Chip Microprocessor, Memory (Main Memory Array Design, Memory Management Concept, Cache Memory Organization), input/output operation (Data Transfer Scheme) and Ports, Addressing- Decoding modes

Unit XI: Microprocessor Interfacing and Programming.
Microcomputer software concepts, Assembly language programming, 8085 microprocessor Pins and Signals, Architecture, Register Structure, Addressing Modes, Instruction Set, Timing Diagrams, Instruction Timing and Execution, Interrupt System, DMA, Stacks and Subroutines, 8255 PPI.

Unit XII: Introduction to C Programming.
Introduction to programming: C character set, Identifiers and keywords, Data Types, Constant, Variable and Arrays, Declaration, Expressions, Statement, Symbolic constant, Arithmetic operators, Unary operators, Relational and logical operators, Assignment operators. Conditional operators, library functions, while statements, do-while statement, for statements, Nested loops, if-else statements, switch statements, break statements, continue statements, Comma operator, goto statements. Defining functions, Accessing functions, Passing arguments to a functions, Specifying Arguments Data types, Functions Prototypes.

Unit XIII: Data Structures in C.
Defining an Arrays, Processing an array, passing arrays to a functions, Multidimensional arrays, Arrays and Strings, Pointers Declarations, Passing pointers to a function, Passing arguments to a functions, Specifying Arguments, Data types, Functions Prototypes Defining a structure, processing a structure, User defined data types, Structure and pointers, Passing structure to a function, Unions, Opening and closing a data file, creating a data file, Unformatted Data file.

Unit XIV: Analog Communication.
Need for modulation, Amplitude modulation, Generation of AM wave, Demodulation of AM wave (suing Square law modulator and Envelope detector). Single tone FM, Mathematical analysis of single tone narrow band FM and wide band FM, Frequency derivation and modulation index, Generation and detection of NBFM and WBFM, Bandwidth requirement of FM signals, FM threshold effect, Pre-emphasis and de-emphasis in FM, Comparison of AM and FM systems.

Unit XV: Digital and Pulse Communication.
Sampling Theorem (statement and proof), Generation and detection of pulse amplitude, Pulse Position and Pulse width modulation signals, Generation and detection of Pulse Code modulation, Digital modulation and demodulation techniques (ASK, FSK, PSK and DPSK).

Note: There will be four objective type questions from each of above units.