**Postgraduate Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology**

*University of Kashmir, Srinagar-190 006*

*Syllabus for M.Sc. Entrance Test in Electronics Session 2013***UNIT I: Electronic Devices and circuits**.

Review of semiconductors,
Thermally generated carriers, Qualitative treatment of PN junction, Barrier
height, Depletion region and junction capacitance, Forwarded and reverse
characteristics, Cut- in voltage, Reverse breakdown voltage, Diode as rectifier
(Half wave and Full wave with analysis), Zener diode and its applications as
voltage regulator, Tunnel diode and its applications as voltage regulator,
Tunnel diode, Clippers, Clampers and Limiters, LCDs as display devices.

**UNIT II: BJT and Field Effect Transistors.**

PNP and NPN transistors,
Transistor action, Characteristics, α and β of a transistor and their
determination from characteristics. Need of biasing, Biasing techniques, Self
bias, Collector feedback bias and emitter bias, D.C load line and operating
point, Saturation and cutoff, Emitter Follower. Design Problems pertaining to
CB, CE and CC

JFET, MOSFET (Depletion and
enhancement type), Construction details, V-I Characteristics, CMOS and CCD, MOS
capacitor Band diagram, JFET and MOSFET as amplifiers, Introduction to IC
technology.

**UNIT III: Network Theorems and Passive Filters.**

Kirchhoff’s Laws, Applications
to π and T type circuits, Current and voltage division theorems, Thevenin’s
theorem, Norton’s theorem, Source Transformation, Superposition theorem,
Reciprocity to passive circuits, Representing R,X, and Z in rectangular and
polar (Phasor) form, Analysis of LC, RC, and LCR circuits with ac source in
time.

domain,
Series and parallel resonance circuits and bandwidth, dB units. Design problems
involving the order of Filter and Pole, Types and properties of passive filters
(ideal and practical), RC, RL, RLC low pass, High pass, Bandpass and Bandstop
filters, Sharpness of response of filters, Filters as phase shifting networks,
Design problems.

**Unit IV: Amplifiers and Oscillators.**

*Classification of Amplifiers:*RC coupled Amplifiers, Analysis at low, mid, high frequencies. Direct coupled amplifiers, Difference amplifiers, Power amplifiers, Class A, Classes B push pull, Efficiency and crossover distortion in each, Design of single and multi-stage RC coupled Amplifiers.

*Feedback:*Positive and negative feedback, Effect of negative feedback on amplifiers gain, Distortion, Bandwidth, input and output Impedance, Barkhausen’s criteria for sustained oscillations, Wein Bridge oscillator, RC phase shift oscillators, Hartley and Colpitts oscillators, Piezo- Electric effect and Crystal oscillators. (Transistorized), Expression for oscillators condition and Frequency of oscillations.

**Unit V: Operational Amplifier and Multivibrators**

*Operational Amplifier (OA):*Ideal and Practical characteristics of OA, Application of OA’s Inverting amplifier phase shifter, Adder, Voltage follower, Scale change, Voltage-to-current and current-to-Voltage converters, Integrators, Differentiators and difference amplifiers (Analysis in each Circuit).

*Multivibrators:*Astable, Monostable and Bistable multivibrators (transistorized). Timer 555 application to Monostable and stable mltivivratiors,

**Unit VI: Power Electronics and Opto-Electronics**

SCR, DIAC, TRIAC and UJT
construction and operations, voltage sources, Current sources, Regulated DC
power supply, Series and shunt regulator, Introduction to power amplifiers, transformers,
Average power and rms current. Active power, Reactive Power and power factor,

Luminescence,
Material system for LED, operation of LED, light current characteristics,
spectral purity of LED’s Optical Absorption in semiconductors, Photo-
Conductive Detector, Photo diode and phototransistor.

**Unit VII: Introduction to discrete Mathematics and Set Theory.**

Set Notation, Designation of
sets, Operation on sets, Venn diagram, Theorems based on set Operations, Family
of Sets, Generalized De-Morgan’s Laws and Generalized Distributive Laws, Power
Set, Partition of a Set. Definition of relations, Types of Relations,
Equivalence Class, Ordering Relations. Posets, Lattices, Boolean algebra, Finite
Boolean Algebra as Tuples or 0’s and Boolean Expressions, Applications of
Boolean Algebra. Decimal, Octal, Hexadecimal, Binary and Ternary number
systems, Inter conversion of number systems, Addition, Subtraction
Multiplication and Division of Binary numbers,

Propositions and Logic
operations, Truth Tables and Propositions Generated by Set, Equivalence and
Implication, Laws of Logic, Mathematical Induction Quantifiers.

**Unit VIII: Combinational Logic Design.**

Positive and Negative logic,
Resistor transistor Logic(RTL), Transistor- Transistor Logic (TTL), Emitter
Coupled Logic (ECL), Diode- Transistor Logic (DTL), HTL, CMOS.

Basic logic gates and NAND,
NOR, XNOR gates Representation of Boolean Expressions in SOP and POS form,
Conversion of SOP to POS and vice versa), Minimization of Boolean Expression
(Karnaugh map method and Quine-Mcclusky method, Don’t care conditions), Binary
Codes (Excess 3, BCD, GRAY code, ASCII code, Various other weighted and
Un-weighted Codes), Design of Arithmetic and Logic Circuits (Adders, Sub
tractors, code converters, Parity checker/Generator, multiplexer and encoders
Decoder/ De-multiplexers).

**Unit IX: Sequential Logic Design.**

Basic Memory Cell, Flip Flop
Design (SR, JK, D, T), Clocked Flip Flops, Flip Flop Triggering (edge and Level
Triggering), Master Slave flip flop, Design and applications

of
Registers, Counters (Synchronous and Asynchronous), Clocked sequential circuit
Design, Memory organization and operation, classifications of memory.

**Unit X: Introduction to Microprocessors.**

Evolution of Microprocessors,
Microprocessor Architecture, Microcomputer, Three- state bus, System bus,
Single-Chip Microprocessor, Memory (Main Memory Array Design, Memory Management
Concept, Cache Memory Organization), input/output operation (Data Transfer
Scheme) and Ports, Addressing- Decoding modes

**Unit XI: Microprocessor Interfacing and Programming.**

Microcomputer software
concepts, Assembly language programming, 8085 microprocessor Pins and Signals,
Architecture, Register Structure, Addressing Modes, Instruction Set, Timing
Diagrams, Instruction Timing and Execution, Interrupt System, DMA, Stacks and
Subroutines, 8255 PPI.

**Unit XII: Introduction to C Programming.**

*Introduction to programming*: C character set, Identifiers and keywords, Data Types, Constant, Variable and Arrays, Declaration, Expressions, Statement, Symbolic constant, Arithmetic operators, Unary operators, Relational and logical operators, Assignment operators. Conditional operators, library functions, while statements, do-while statement, for statements, Nested loops, if-else statements, switch statements, break statements, continue statements, Comma operator, goto statements. Defining functions, Accessing functions, Passing arguments to a functions, Specifying Arguments Data types, Functions Prototypes.

**Unit XIII: Data Structures in C.**

Defining an Arrays, Processing
an array, passing arrays to a functions, Multidimensional arrays, Arrays and
Strings, Pointers Declarations, Passing pointers to a function, Passing
arguments to a functions, Specifying Arguments, Data types, Functions
Prototypes Defining a structure, processing a structure, User defined data
types, Structure and pointers, Passing structure to a function, Unions, Opening
and closing a data file, creating a data file, Unformatted Data file.

**Unit XIV: Analog Communication.**

Need for modulation, Amplitude
modulation, Generation of AM wave, Demodulation of AM wave (suing Square law
modulator and Envelope detector). Single tone FM, Mathematical analysis of
single tone narrow band FM and wide band FM, Frequency derivation and
modulation index, Generation and detection of NBFM and WBFM, Bandwidth
requirement of FM signals, FM threshold effect, Pre-emphasis and de-emphasis in
FM, Comparison of AM and FM systems.

**Unit XV: Digital and Pulse Communication.**

Sampling Theorem (statement and
proof), Generation and detection of pulse amplitude, Pulse Position and Pulse
width modulation signals, Generation and detection of Pulse Code modulation,
Digital modulation and demodulation techniques (ASK, FSK, PSK and DPSK).

**Note:**

*There will be four objective type questions from each of above units.*