M.Sc Applied Geology - Kashmir Student


Saturday, January 1, 2011

M.Sc Applied Geology

M.Sc. Applied Geology

Note: The syllabus prescribed for the entrance test has been divided into fifteen units. Each unit carries a weightage of four marks. Paper setters are required to set four multiple choice type questions with only one correct or most appropriate answer separately for each unit, giving uniform representation to the whole syllabus contained therein.

Introduction to the science of geology, its relation with other branches of sciences and history of geology. Contribution of physics and chemistry in the development of ideas about earth. Various geospheres. Physical properties and chemical composition of the earth and earth’s crust. Geochronology and age of earth. Relative and absolute techniques for age determination. Introduction to minerals and rocks and minerals Rocks as natural mineral aggregates, types of rocks, Preliminary knowledge about the most common rock forming and economic minerals. Geology as record of history of Earth; (a) Fossils b) Mineralogy and the texture; (c) Structures; (d) Palaeogeography (e) Paleoclimate. Surface relief of the earth. Exogenous and endogenous process. Weathering and agents of weathering, Products of weathering. Geological work of river erosion, transportation, deposition and related features. Types of drainage patterns. Erosional and depositional geological work by the groundwater. Glaciers: Definition and types, geological work of glacial erosion, transport and deposition related features. Aeolian processes: Wind erosion and deposition features. Oceans: Topography of sea floor - Continental shelves, slope, abyssal plains, Ocean ridges, and ocean deeps, submarine valleys, canyons, deep-sea trenches and guyots. Oceanic erosion: Wave action and related features related features. Marine deposition: submarine bars, ridges and the features of shoreline. Coral reefs: types fringing, barrier and atolls. Epeirogenesis and orogenesis. Volcanoes: types, distribution and eruptional features and products.

Introduction & fundamental concepts. Catastrophism, uniformitarianism, cycle of erosion, and base level of erosion. Mass wasting: Definition, factors favoring mass wasting- Lithology, stratigraphy, structure, topography, climate, organisms. Slope flowage: creep, solifluction; rapid flowage - earth flow, mudflow, debris flow, avalanche, landslides, and slumps. Karst topography - Terra Rosa, lapis, sink holes, blind valleys, Caverns, Stalactites, stalagmites, natural bridges and tunnels. Fault scarps, cuesta, hogback, horst, graben, structural domes, inversion of topography. Structural landforms: humid, sub-humid, arid, semi-arid. Soils: Soil profiles, Soil types of India.

Basic concepts of field geology: Maps; Topographic and geological maps. Dip and strike of stratified rocks, horizontal, inclined beds. True dip and apparent dip. Plunge and pitch of linear structures. Outcrop pattern of horizontal beds. Vertical beds and inclined beds, inliers and outliers. True thickness and vertical thickness. Width of the outcrop, relation between true thickness and the width of outcrop. Nature of the problem of overturned strata. Use of different sedimentary features and paleontological methods for determination of the overturned strata. Mechanical principles Introduction about force, couple, stress & strain. Stress; definition of force and stress. Normal and shear stress. Basic concept of stress ellipse. Strain definition and computation of changes in line length. Basic concept of strain ellipse. Folds: Definition of folds, inflation, Classification of folds. Types of folds. Unconformities: Definition, types of unconformities. Criteria for recognition of unconformities. Concordant and discordant plutons. Joints - Definition, attitude of joints, joint sets and joint system. Geometrical classifications of joints. Faults: Definition, attitude of fault planes and symbols. Components of fault. Classification of faults. Criteria for recognition of faults. Lineation and foliation.

Introduction; Features and divisions of Earth's crust; Physical characters of continental and oceans, continental shelf, slope and abyssal plains, island arcs, rift valleys, mid-ocean ridges, mountain chains. Important concepts about Earth dynamics: outline description of Contraction, Expansion, Plate tectonics and Surge tectonic models. Plate tectonics - basic concepts and definitions, types of plate margins, important characters of plate margins. Mechanism of plate movement; Mantle plumes vis-à-vis island chains. Plate tectonics in relation to the distribution seismic, volcanic and island arc belts. Plate tectonic models for the origin of mountain belts: Pacific type and Andean type. Some fundamental problems with Plate tectonics – Antipodal positions of continents and ocean basins, geographic restriction of island arcs, size of ocean basins vs. possible size of mantle convection, variable depth of asthenosphere, absence of subduction zones around Antarctic plate, absence of required boundary between North and South American plates. Tectonics of the Indian subcontinent: Tectonic divisions (Extrapeninsula; Indo-Gangetic Plain and Peninsular Shield), their tectonic characters and major structural trends. Northward movement of the Indian Plate and the origin and evolution of the Himalayas and its thrust belts. Tectonic models for the origin and evolution of the Indo- Gangetic Plain. Seismicity of the Indian Sub-continent.

Stratigraphic classification and terminology, Principles of Stratigraphy. Geological timescale, stratigraphic correlation, imperfection of geological record. Stratigraphic knowledge of the following Precambrian geological System/Groups of India with special reference to their classification, distribution, lithology and economic importance in their localities: Dharwar, Aravalli, Cuddapa and Vindhyan. Stratigraphy of the following Phanerozoic geological System/Groups with special reference to their lithology and fossil content: Paleozoic succession of Kashmir. Triassic of Spiti, Jurassic of Kuchh, Cretaceous of Trichnapalli. Siwaliks and Karewa of Kashmir.

Elementary ideas about origin of life, Evolution of the life through ages. Preliminary idea about faunal succession. Classification of organisms. Fossils, their characters, conditions necessary for fossilization; types of preservation and occurrence. Application of Paleontology. Linnaean or Binomial code of nomenclature of organisms. Elementary concept of vertebrates Paleontology with special reference to Siwaliks vertebrate fauna. Introduction to micropaleontology and microfossils and their application. Introduction to micropaleontology and microfossils and their application. Introduction to Paleobotany with special reference to Gondwana plant fossils. Theories of evolution and palaeontological data on evolution. Detailed morphology, classification, geological and geographical distribution of the following: 1) Brachiopoda (2) Bivalvia (3) Gastropoda (4) Cephalopoda (5) Graptoloida (6) Anthozoa (7) Echinoidea (8) Trilobita. Elementary ideas about Foraminifora, Ostracoda, Radiolarian and Conodonts. Evolution of Man, Horse & Elephant. Causes of migration and dispersal. Extinction of organisms with special reference different hypothesis for the extinction of dinosaurs. Introduction to palynology and its applications. Application of paleontological data in paleogeographic reconstructions. Paleontological evidence in favor of continental drift.

Introduction to crystallography, geometrical nature of order of crystals. Translation vectors, planar and space lattices. Concept of point group and 32 classes. Morphology of crystals; Definition of crystal. Face, edge and solid angle. Law of constancy of interfacial angles. Axial system and axial ratios. Parameter systems of Weiss, Miller indices. Law of Rationality of indices. 48 symmetry forms; typical crystals showing combination of forms. Study of normal classes of crystal systems {vis-à-vis crystallographic axes, symmetry elements & general 4 forms). Crystal growth and twining. Growth of crystals from solutions and from a melt under controlled conditions, crystal growth in open fractures, solution cavities and vesicles. Twining in crystals: Types and causes, different twin laws. Crystallinity, habit and forms of minerals. Crystal chemistry of minerals: Concept of crystal structure of minerals; dimorphism, polymorphism and pseudomorohism; isomorphism and solid solution.

Introduction to mineralogy: definition of mineral, scope of determinative mineralogy, examples of rock forming (silicate) minerals and ore forming (oxide/sulphide) minerals. Scalar and vector properties of minerals, important rock-forming minerals: their classification; Physical and optical characters and mode of occurrence of the characteristic members from following groups: Quartz, Feldspar, Mica, Amphibole, Pyroxene, Olivine, Garnet, Chlorite and Carbonate. Mineral optics: Elements of optics. Optics of isotopic medium - refractive index, Snell's law of critical angle, anisotropic media. Polarization and interference of light. Polaroid, polarizing microscope-construction and use. Use of accessory plates. Pleochroism and Birefringence. Optical indicatrix: Uniaxial and Biaxial indicatrix. Behavior of light in uniaxial and biaxial crystals. Optic sign. Optical properties of minerals. Interference colors. Michel Levy chart and its use in determining thickness, path-difference, birefringence or order of interference color.

Introduction to Igneous Petrology, Difference between Petrology, petrography and petrogenesis. Texture and structure of igneous rocks, Composition and constitution of magma: Definition of magma, composition of magma, physico-chemical constitution of magma, primar
magma. Processes resulting in diversity in igneous rocks: Fractionation and differentiation, Assimilation. Nomenclature and description of common igneous rocks: Granite, pegmatite, syenite, diorite, gabbro, granodiorite, norite, anorthosite, peridotite, pyroxenite, dunite, lamrophyry, nepheline synite, granite porphyry, diorite porphyry, dolerite, rhyolite, rhachyte, dacite, andesite, basalt, phonolite. Classification of igneous rocks: Principles of classification, CIPW classifications, and tabular classification. Introduction to sedimentary petrology, Sedimentary rocks and processes involved in formation of sedimentary rocks. Texture and structure of sedimentary rocks. Classification of sedimentary rocks: Folk's classifications of carbonate rocks. Classification of sandstones, greywacke and arkose.

Definition  of metamorphism Controls of metamorphism, Types of metamorphism, anataxis,palingenesis, migmatization. Texture and structure of metamorphic rocks. Nomenclature and description of metamorphic rocks: Phyllite, slate, schist, gneiss, amphibolite, marble, quartzite, granulite, eclogite. Introduction to geochemistry: Basic knowledge about crystal chemistry. Colloids in geological systems: kinds of colloids, ion exchanges, and geological evidence for earlier colloids. Cosmic abundance of elements; Silicate structures. Gold Schmidt's geochemical classification of elements. Distribution of the elements in igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks.

UNIT-11: ORE GEOLOGY 4X1=4 Marks
Ore minerals and gangue. Examples of common ore minerals. Concept of metallogenic epochs and provinces. Classification of mineral deposits- genetic and associational parameters. Ore–forming fluids, means of transport and minerals deposits. Pegmatite and pegmatite deposits. Deposits of mica with special reference to India. Oceanic mineral resources (manganese nodules). Elementary idea of hydrothermal deposits with reference to: a) Porphyry copper deposit b) Vein deposits of tin and tungsten. Ores formed by metamorphic processes. Supergene enrichment deposits. Mode of occurrence of following minerals deposits in India: Banded iron formation, Gold, Thorium deposits. Placer & residual deposits.

Introduction to fuel geology, Origin of petroleum - Organic versus inorganic theories; transformation of organic matter into petroleum. Limiting conditions of petroleum occurrence. Reservoir rocks - definition and types. Source rocks - definition and types. Reservoir traps and classification. Migration and accumulation of petroleum. Coal - Introduction; Two principal periods of coal formation; Constituents of coal: Rank and grade of coal; Varieties of coal. Origin of coal.

Introduction to hydrogeology: origin, occurrence and distribution of Groundwater; springs and seepages. Zone of aeration and saturation. Water table, perched water table, porosity and Permeability, artisan water. Groundwater movement – unconfined, confined and perched aquifer and its types. Hydrological properties of rocks - porosity, permeability, specific yield, specific retention, hydraulic conductivity, transmissivity and storativity. Hydrological cycle and its components. Hydrological classification of geological formations. Fundamentals of groundwater exploration – geological and geophysical methods. Water quality standards for drinking purposes

Introduction to geophysics and domains of Geophysics; Spheroidal shape of earth, magnetic field of the earth. Exploring Earth's interior with geophysical techniques. The utility of geophysics. Earth's thermal history, Thermal gradient of the earth. Convection currents. Gravitational Field: The concept of gravity; its variation with latitude, altitude, topography, and subsurface density variations. Gravity Instruments: Pendulum, gravimeters, ship-borne measurements. Units of gravity, gravity anomaly - definition, types (Free- air, Bouguer), local and regional concepts. Use of gravity method for locating mineral resources and petroleum reservoirs. Detection of cavities at engineering sites. Isostasy: Observation; Pratt and Airy schemes of the isostatic compensation, elastic crust on viscous mantle. Seismology: Earthquake and effects of an earthquake - seismic waves and damage to structures and natural objects. Seismographs. Basic features of seismograms; Magnitude and intensity of an earthquake. Types of earthquake - tectonic, volcanic and manmade. Tectonic earthquake and creation of new faults. Elastic rebound theory - statement and geodetic evidence. Earthquake location: Focus, epicenter and hypocenter; Earthquake belts; Focal depth of earthquakes. Earthquake focal mechanisms. Seismic wave reflection and refraction. Structure of the earth. Earthquake prediction and seismic gap theory.

Remote sensing: Concept and foundation of RS (Electromagnetic spectrum). Overview of Remote Sensing technology. Landsat, IRS, ASTER, MODIS. Interaction of Electromagnetic waves with Earth surface features (water, soil, rocks, vegetation) - Introduction. Application of remote sensing: geomorphological mapping, geological hazards assessment, hydrology and land use planning. Introduction to GIS and its applications. Societal Geology: Fundamental concept (environment, population needs and planning). Mineral resources vis-à-vis population needs environmental impact of exploration and processing of mineral resources on air, soil and surface and subsurface water. Water supply and water use - human, agriculture and industrial. Societal implications of major hydroelectric, nuclear and industrial projects. Earth processes and geological hazards - Introduction. River flooding: magnitude and frequency of floods, urbanization and flooding, nature and extent of flood hazard. Landslides: Slope stability, causes of landslides, anthropogenic activity and landslides, prevention and correction of landslides. Earthquakes: Scale of intensity related damage, preventive majors. Volcanoes: Effects of volcanic activity, prediction of volcanic activity, adjustment to and perception of volcanic hazard. Coastal hazards: tropical cyclones, tsunamis, and coastal erosion.